• Lucian Paunescu Daily Sourcing & Research SRL Bucharest
  • Marius Florin Dragoescu Daily Sourcing & Research SRL Bucharest
  • Sorin Mircea Axinte Daily Sourcing & Research SRL Bucharest
Keywords: cellular glass, microwave, high mechanical strength, energy efficiency, structural homogeneity


The paper presents the results of the research for the production by a nonconventional method (using microwave irradiation) of a cellular glass with high mechanical strength from flat glass waste (86 – 95%), calcium carbonate (1%)  as a foaming agent and an addition of sodium silicate also called “water glass” (4 – 13%). The cellular glass samples had the apparent density between 0.40 – 0.45 g/ cm3, the thermal conductivity in the range 0.076 – 0.081 W/ m·K and the compressive strength between 4.9 – 6.2 MPa, having the characteristics of a foam glass gravel industrially manufactured by conventional methods and used in construction as materials resistant to high mechanical loads. The morphological characteristic specific for the thermal insulating materials, i.e. a homogeneous distribution of the pores, have been fulfilled, even in case of using a raw material (flat glass waste) which is, generally, avoided because it causes structural inhomogeneity of the glass foam. The energy efficiency of the making process is remarkable, the specific energy consumption having low values between 1.13 – 1.19 kWh/ kg.        


1. Hurley, J., Glass-Research and Development, Final report, A UK market survey for foam glass, The Waste and Resources Action Programme Publication, Banbury – Oxon, Great Britain, (2003).
2. Scarinci, G., Brusatin, G., Bernardo, E., Cellular ceramics: structure, manufacturing, properties and applications, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KGaA, Scheffler, M., Colombo, P. (eds.), Weinheim, Germany, Foam Glass, pp. 158 – 176, (2005).
3. Da Silva, L. L., Nunes Ribeiro, L. C., Santacruz, G., Arcaro, S., Koop Alves, A, Pérez Bergmann, C., Glass foams produced from glass and yerba mate (Ilex paraguarinensis), FME Transactions, Vol.46, pp. 70 – 79, (2016). https://www.mas.bg.ac.rs/_media/istrasivanje/fme/vol46
4. Hibbert, M., Understanding the production and use of Foam Glass Gravel across Europe and opportunities in the UK, Final Report, July 2, (2016).
5. Zegowitz,A., Cellular glass aggregate serving as thermal insulation and a drainage layer. https://web.ornl.gov>conf-archive>48_Zegowitz
6. Technical Information - TECHNOpor. http://www.technopor.com
7. Geocell: Manufacturing plants. https://www.geocell-schaumglas.eu/en/our_company/manufacturing_plants/
8. Environmental Product Declaration. Glapor Werk Mittertesch GmbH. http://www.Glapor-cellular-glass-gravel/
9. Glamaco Foam Glass Gravel. http://www.glamaco.com/products/foam-glass-gravel/
10. Kharissova, O., Kharissov, B. I., Ruiz Valdés, J. J., Review: The use of microwave irradiation in the processing of glasses and their composites, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 1457 – 1466, (2010).
11. Dragoescu M. F., Paunescu, L., Axinte s. M., Sebe, A. C., Dense glass foam with high mechanical strength produced from glass waste in microwave field, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Emerging Technologies in Materials Engineering – EmergeMAT, pp. 33, Bucharest, Romania, November 14 – 16, (2018).
12. Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M. F., Axinte, S. M., Sebe, A. C., Nonconventional technique for producing high mechanical glass foam from glass waste, Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 48 – 55, (2019).
13. Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M. F., Axinte, S. M., Sebe, A. C., Porous ceramic material with high mechanical strength made from clay waste and coal ash using the microwave energy, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Emerging Technologies in Materials Engineering – EmergeMAT, pp. 38, Bucharest, Romania, November 6 – 8, (2019).
14. Jones, D. A., Lelyveld, T. P., Mavrofidis, S. D., Kingman, S. W., Miles, N. J., Microwave heating applications in environmental engineering - a review, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 34, pp. 75 – 90, (2002).
15. Kitchen, H. J., Vallance, S. R., Kennedy, J. L., Tapia-Ruiz, N., Carassiti, L., Modern microwave methods in solid-state inorganic materials chemistry: From fundamentals to manufacturing, Chemical Reviews, vol. 114, pp. 1170 – 1206, (2014).
16. Collection of flat glass for use in flat glass manufacture, Waste Protocol Project, A Good Practice Guide, edited by Environmental Agency, March (2008).
17. Eidukyavichus, K. K., Matseikene, V. R., Balkyavichus, V. V., Shpokauskas, A. A., Use of cullet of different chemical compositions in foam glass production, Glass and Ceramics, Vol. 61, No. 3 – 4, pp. 77 – 80, March (2004).
18. Hesky, D., Aneziris, C. G., Gross, U., Horn, A., Water and waterglass mixtures for foam glass production, Ceramics International, Vol. 41, No. 10, Part A, pp. 12604 – 12613, December (2015).
19. Manual of weighing applications, Part 1 – Density, (1999). https://www.deu.ie/sites/default/files/
20. Anovitz, L. M., Cole, D. R., Characterization and analysis of porosity and pore structures, Review in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, Vol. 80, pp. 61 – 164, (2015).
How to Cite
Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M., & Axinte, S. (2020). HIGH MECHANICAL STRENGTH CELLULAR PRODUCT AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL MANUFACTURED IN MICROWAVE FIELD. Nonconventional Technologies Review, 24(2). Retrieved from http://revtn.ro/index.php/revtn/article/view/288

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>